Past Work2018-04-20T21:17:24+00:00



Utility, Transportation and Climate Policy

Big Changes Afoot: What Will the Utility Business Look Like in 20 Years?, Green Business Roundtable presentation, Durango, CO, December 10, 2014.

New Approaches to Energy Efficiency: Our Best Hope for Stabilizing the Climate and Improving Competitiveness, keynote presentation at Portuguese Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (PCEEE) conference, Lisbon, Portugal, June 20, 2014.

Are Test Procedures Passing the Test? Ensuring That Measured Results Are Representative of Energy Use in the Field, Energy Efficient Domestic Appliances and Lighting (EEDAL) Conference, Coimbra, Portugal, September 2013.

New Directions for Energy Policy in a Climate-Constrained Era, presentation to ACEEE, October 2010.

Bending the Curve Downward: What Will It Take to Sharply Reduce Residential Greenhouse Gas Emissions?, CCSE Clean Energy Conference, San Diego, September 16, 2010.

Implementing Progressive Efficiency Specifications: Considerations for ENERGY STAR, with Alyssa Go, October 31, 2010.

Is Efficient Sufficient? The Case for Shifting Our Emphasis in Energy Specifications to Progressive Efficiency and Sufficiency, prepared for eceee and US EPA ENERGY STAR, March 22, 2010.

Defining a Standard Metric for Electricity Savings, Environmental Research Letters, with Jonathan Koomey and numerous co-authors. March 9, 2010.

The Nuts and Bolts of Reducing Residential Energy Consumption, Yale University lecture, October 5, 2009.

New Approaches to Reducing Absolute Energy Consumption: Sufficiency, Progressive Efficiency and TopTen, ACEEE Market Transformation Symposium, Washington DC, March 30, 2009 and eceee Summer Study, Nice, France, June 4, 2009.

After 28 Years of Warming Up, Are You Ready for the New Efficiency Race Ahead?, Northwest Energy Coalition annual meeting, Portland, OR, December 5, 2008.

Efficiency in a Climate-Constrained World: Are we Aiming High Enough? In the proceedings of the 2008 ACEEE Summer Study. Asilomar, CA. August 20, 2008.

Climate Changes Everything: New Approaches to Efficiency in the Northwest. Presented to the Northwest Energy Efficiency Task Force, Portland, OR, August 1, 2008.

Energy and Economic Alternatives to the Desert Rock Energy Project: Comments on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement, prepared for Diné CARE, January 2008 (with Paul Sheldon and Riley Neugebauer).

Editorial: Arthurian Legend Meets Climate Constraints, Home Energy, July/August 2006.

Sorry, Wrong Number: The Use and Misuse of Numerical Facts in Analysis and Media Reporting of Energy Issues, Annual Review of Energy & the Environment, 27:119 – 158, 2002, (with Jonathan Koomey, Skip Laitner, Jane Thornton, Richard E. Brown, Joseph H. Eto, Carrie Webber, and Cathy Cullicott).

Policy Recommendations for Improving Energy-Efficiency Labeling in the United States, report prepared for the National Commission on Energy Policy, October 22, 2004 (with Catherine Hardy and My Ton).

Dealer Incentives for Fuel Efficiency: Are They a Cost Effective Way to Save Gasoline? for the National Commission on Energy Policy, March 4, 2004 (with Catherine Hardy, Debbie Gordon and My Ton).

Beyond Gridlock: Linking Automakers’ Profits to Energy Efficiency, NRDC book manuscript, unpublished, 1994.

What’s the Charge? Estimating the Emissions Benefits of Electric Vehicles in Southern California, NRDC/EDF joint report, 1994, (with Francis Chapman and Diane Fisher).

No More Tailpipes: The Role of Electric Vehicles in Clearing California’s Air, NRDC policy analysis synthesized from “What’s the Charge?” 1994.

30 Simple Energy Things You Can Do to Save the Earth, 1990, Earthworks Press
(with John Javna and Seth Zuckerman).

Introduction, 50 Simple Things You Can Do to Save the Earth, 1989, Earthworks Press.

The Decline of Conservation at California Utilities: Causes, Costs, and Remedies, July 1989, NRDC Special Report, (with Ralph Cavanagh).

“Toward a National Energy Policy,” World Policy Journal, spring 1989, pp. 239-264, (with Ralph Cavanagh, David Goldstein, and Robert Watson).

Super Efficient Buildings

Zero Net Energy Homes – Occupant Factors: Lighting, Appliance and Plug Load Topics and Energy Monitoring and Home Automation, full-day ZNE training sessions taught on behalf of PG&E, SCE, and SMUD, 2011-2015.

Synergies in Swimming Pool Efficiency: How Much Can Be Saved? Draft submitted to the Natural Resources Defense Council, February 13, 2006 (with Jeremy Rivera and Laura Moorefield).

“Ceiling Fans: Fulfilling the Energy Efficiency Promise,” Home Energy, January/February 2001, (with Noah Horowitz).


LEDs: Ready for Liftoff?, AESP webinar, March 2014.

Evaluation of Best-in-Class LED Reflector Lamps, IEE White Paper prepared for the Edison Foundation, with Kevin Simonson, Luke Mason, Laura Moorefield and Erica Lighthiser, January 2013.

Northeast Regional Residential Lighting Strategy, commissioned by NEEP, with Energy Futures Group, D&R International, and Optimal Energy, November 2011.

Next Generation Lighting Programs: Opportunities to Advance Efficient Lighting for a Cleaner Environment, US Environmental Protection Agency report commissioned by ENERGY STAR, with Luke Mason, Laura Moorefield, and Kevin Simonson, November 2011.

Evaluating the Potential of Halogen Technologies: European EcoDesign and Labelling Requirements for Directional Lamps, prepared for eceee, with Luke Mason and Laura Moorefield, March 7, 2011.

Lighting Portfolio Planning for Efficiency Programs: Advanced Session, ENERGY STAR partner meeting, Denver, October 4-5, 2010.

Prospects for Residential Lighting Programs in Light of Federal Lamp Standards, presentation to annual SWEEP conference, November 10, 2009.

Reexamining the Role of CFLs in Meeting Savings Targets, presentation at ACEEE Energy Efficiency as a Resource conference, September 29, 2009.

Replacement Technologies for GLS: What Can We Expect from Future Incandescents, CFLs and LEDs?, A Beacon to the Future: India’s Path Toward Low Carbon Lighting, Delhi, India, April 1, 2009.

NRDC Comments to the FTC on Lamp Labeling Study, with Noah Horowitz and Laura Moorefield, March 23, 2009.

B-class Halogens and Beyond: Design Approaches to Complying with the Proposed EU Eco-Design Domestic Lighting Requirements, a technical and economic analysis of the draft Eco-design requirements proposed for general service lighting, prepared for the European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (eceee) with financial support from the European Climate Foundation and Defra’s Market Transformation Programme (UK), December 11, 2008, with Laura Moorefield and Craig Billingsley.

Building a Better Bulb: Technologies, Policies, and Programs Behind the Battle to Increase the Efficiency of General Service Incandescent Light Bulbs, in the proceedings of the ACEEE 2006 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Asilomar, CA (with Peter May-Ostendorp and Gary Fernstrom).

Compact Fluorescent Lighting in America: Lessons Learned on the Way to Market, PNNL-15730 report prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, 2006 (with L.J. Sandahl, T.L. Gilbride, M.R. Ledbetter, and H.E. Stewart).

Proposed Energy Efficiency Specifications for General Service Incandescent Lamps. CASE Report for PG&E’s PY2005: Title 20 Standards Development. July 13, 2005.

LED Lighting Technologies and Potential for Near-Term Applications, prepared for the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, June 2003 (with My Ton, Kate Conway, and Suzanne Foster).

Mercury in Fluorescent Lamps: Environmental Consequences and Policy Implications for NRDC, final report submitted to Natural Resources Defense Council, May 31, 2003, (with Carolyn Dunmire, Andria Jacob, My Ton, Travis Reeder, and Vicki Fulbright).

2001: A CFL Odyssey. What Went Right? Paper presented at the 2002 ACEEE Summer Study, Asilomar, CA, (with John Zugel, Ecos Consulting, Peter Banwell and Wendy Reed, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency).

Lighting the Way to Energy Savings: How Can We Transform Residential Lighting Markets? for the Natural Resources Defense Council, December 7, 1999, (with Chris Granda, Lois Gordon and My Ton).

Energy-Efficient Residential Luminaries: Technologies and Strategies for Market Transformation, submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under Grant # CX824685 to the Natural Resources Defense Council, May 13, 1996, (with Chris Granda, Charlie Stephens and My Ton). Halogen Torchieres: Cold Facts and Hot Ceilings, Tech Update TU-96-10, E Source, September 1996.

LED Traffic Lights: Test Results Give Green Light for Additional Installations, Tech Update, E Source, November 1995.



Emerging Technology Dryer Testing, Prepared for the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, with Dave Denkenberger, Brian Spak and Apurva Pawashe, November 2013.

Analysis of Potential Energy Savings from Heat Pump Clothes Dryers in North America, CLASP report prepared for the Super Efficient Dryer Initiative, with Dave Denkenberger, Nathan Beck, Brandan Trimboli and Debbie Driscol, March 2013.

Out with the Old, In with the New: Why Refrigerator and Room Air Conditioner Programs Should Target Replacement to Maximize Energy Savings, for the Natural Resources Defense Council, November 2001, (with Travis Reeder).

Results from CLASP-Funded Energy Efficiency Testing of European Heat Pump and US Conventional Clothes Dryers, May 31, 2012.

Residential Clothes Dryers: A Closer Look at Energy Efficiency Test Procedures and Savings Opportunities, prepared for the Natural Resources Defense Council, with Dave Denkenberger, Serena Mau and Eric Wanless, November 2011.

Is Efficient Sufficient? (no) The Case for Shifting Our Emphasis in Energy Specifications to Progressive Efficiency and Sufficiency, eceee
workshop, Brussels, May 18, 2010.

Appliances for Presidents: Brief Thoughts on Appliance Energy Use and Policy Opportunities to Reduce It, presentation at UC Davis Rosenfeld Symposium, March 9, 2010.

Residential Clothes Dryers: An Investigation of Energy Efficiency Test Procedures and Savings Opportunities, with Paul Bendt and Craig Billingsley, prepared for NRDC, November 6, 2009.


Consumer Electronics

An Energy Efficiency Philosophy for Electronic Products, July 5, 2012.

Power Scaling in Proportion to Data Processing. Prepared by Ecos for the Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency, as part of the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate. June 2011.

Cutting Edge Feasibility. Prepared by Ecos for the Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency, as part of the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate. June 2011.

Scaling Power Use to Functionality: Design Strategies and Opportunities for Energy Savings, APEC Standby Conference, Tokyo, October 19, 2010.

Assessment of Options for Improving Energy Efficiency Test Procedures for Displays, research funded by US EPA ENERGY STAR, NRCan and NYSERDA, August 11, 2010.

Understanding Plug Loads and the Opportunity for Energy Savings, National Rural Electric Cooperative Association annual meeting, New Orleans, February 12, 2009.

Consumer Electronics: Global Harmonization Opportunities for Energy Savings, Global Product Efficiency 2008, Brussels, Belgium, October 31, 2008.

Plugging the Savings Gap: How Efficient Plug Loads Can Contribute to Your Program Portfolio, ESOURCE Forum, Denver, CO, September 24, 2008.

Thinking Strategically About Residential Plug Loads: New Approaches to Maximizing Energy Savings. Presented to the stakeholders developing the residential section of the California Long-term Energy Efficiency Strategic Plan. Sacramento, CA, December 11, 2007. (Special note: the strategy presented was adopted; see Section 2, page 9:

Radical Redesign Nears for Battery Chargers,” Power Electronics Technology, April 2007, pp. 20 – 25 (with Suzanne Foster Porter).

Battery Charger and Internal Power Supplies Standards Recommendations, for the California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research Program, July 2006 (with Suzanne Foster Porter).

Lean, Green and Solid State: Measuring and Enhancing Computer Efficiency, in the proceedings of the ACEEE 2006 Summer Study Conference on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Asilomar, CA (with Kim Herb and Peter May-Ostendorp, Ecos Consulting; and Rebecca Duff, ICF Consulting).

In Search of Synergy: The role of benchmarking in measuring and enhancing computer efficiency, proceedings of the 2006 IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment, San Francisco, CA, May 2006 (with Peter May-Ostendorp, Kim Herb, and Arthur Howard).

Summary Report on Power Supply Efficiency Dependence on Voltage and Power Output, for the California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research Program, January 2006 (with Peter May-Ostendorp).

Recommendations for Tier I ENERGY STAR Computer Specification, presentation for the ENERGY STAR® Stakeholders Meeting hosted by Dell Computers, Austin, Texas, June 21, 2005 (with Noah Horowitz, NRDC; Peter Ostendorp and Kim Herb, Ecos Consulting).

80 PLUS: A Strategy for Reducing the Inherent Environmental Impacts of Computers, for 2005 IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment, May 2005 (with Peter Ostendorp).

Televisions: Active Mode Energy Use, New Horizons for Energy Efficiency, report prepared for the Natural Resources Defense Council, March 2005 (with Suzanne Foster and Peter Ostendorp).

Power Supply Census, for the California Energy Commission PIER program, March 2005 (with Suzanne Foster, Travis Reeder and Catherine Hardy).

Ac-Dc Server Power Supplies: Making the Leap to Higher Efficiency. Applied Power Electronics Conference 2005 (with Arshad Mansoor, EPRI Solutions).

Designing Ac-Dc Power Supplies for Improved Energy Efficiency: A Technical Primer, prepared for the California Energy Commission with Public Interest Energy Research Funds. December 2004 (with Suzanne Foster; Arshad Mansoor, EPRI Solutions and Tom Geist, EPRI Solutions).

Forging Ahead with Desktop PC Power Supply Efficiency Improvements, presentation at the Intel Technology Symposium, September 8, 2004 (with Suzanne Foster, Ecos Consulting; David Hiller, Lilly Huang and David Perchlik, Intel Corporation; and Craig Hershberg, U.S. EPA).

If We’re Only Snoozing, We’re Losing: Opportunities to Save Energy by Improving the Active Mode Efficiency of Consumer Electronics. ACEEE 2004 Summer Study Conference Proceedings on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. (with Suzanne Foster and Noah Horowitz).

Analysis of Standards Options For Single-Voltage External Ac to Dc Power Supplies. CASE Report for PY2004: Title 20 Standards Development, May 3, 2004.

Charge! A New Battle Cry for Energy Efficiency, Home Energy, vol. 21, no. 2, March/April 2004, pp. 18-22 (with Suzanne Foster).

Power Supply Efficiency: What Have We Learned? for the California Energy Commission’s Public Interest Research Group (PIER) program, February 2004, (with Suzanne Foster, Vicki Fulbright and Wendy Ghiasinejad).

Test Protocol for Measuring the Energy Efficiency of Battery Charging Appliances, prepared with Public Interest Energy Research and Title 20 funds from the state of California, and available at, October 2003, (with Suzanne Foster, Andrew McAllister, and Arshad Mansoor).

Laptops: How Much Do They Use and How Much Can We Save? prepared for the Natural Resources Defense Council, September, 2003, (with Suzanne Foster).

Battery Chargers and Energy Efficiency, Summary of Findings and Recommendations, prepared for the Natural Resources Defense Council, October, 2003 (with Suzanne Foster, Travis Reeder, and Riley Neugebauer).

Analysis of Standards Options for Low-Voltage Wall Transformers, prepared for Pacific Gas & Electric, August 2002 (with Travis Reeder).

Power Supplies: A Hidden Opportunity for Energy Savings, for the Natural Resources Defense Council, May 2002, (with Travis Reeder).